A delusion is a false belief held with absolute conviction despite superior evidence. Unlike hallucinations, delusions are always pathological (the result of an illness or illness process). As a pathology, it is distinct from a belief based on false or incomplete information, dogma, poor memory, illusion, or other effects of perception.
.Jaynes wrote that ancient humans before roughly 1200 BC were not reflectively meta-conscious and operated by means of automatic, nonconscious habit-schemas. Instead of having meta-consciousness, these humans were constituted by what Jaynes calls the "bicameral mind". For bicameral humans, when habit did not suffice to handle novel stimuli and stress rose at the moment of decision, neural activity in the "dominant" (left) hemisphere was modulated by auditory verbal hallucinations originating in the so-called "silent" (right) hemisphere (particularly the right temporal cortex), which were heard as the voice of a chieftain or god and immediately obeyed
Jaynes wrote, "[For bicameral humans], volition came as a voice that was in the nature of a neurological command, in which the command and the action were not separated, in which to hear was to obey." Jaynes argued that the change from bicamerality to consciousness (linguistic meta-cognition) occurred over a period of centuries beginning around 1200 BC. The selection pressure for Jaynesian consciousness as a means for cognitive control is due, in part, to chaotic social disorganizations and the development of new methods of behavioral control such as writing.
Tim Hebert wrote:Perhaps ancient man had a naturally occurring high level of dopamine which increased auditory hallucinations during high periods of stress?
nablator wrote:My dad (86) has had vivid hallucinations quite often. He was "normal" most of the time until recently. Now he is more or less confused about everything
nablator wrote:Of course! Even if hallucinations are not always pathological (because of drugs, dehydration, etc.), in this case they are, obviously
m0r1arty wrote:I think we have to be careful here (Also sorry to be late to the party!)
Dealing with particular cases, and moreso finding out more about them afterwards, is difficult.
Much like the preacher who holds back or plans for releasing information later we are scurrying down the path of knee-jerk or impulsive reactions without knowing more of the story.
On top of that having personal associations, be it work or family related, muddies the waters of objectivity when approaching cases.
Luck wrote:You even mentioned Jaynes, whose book I really liked and I missed it
Tim Hebert wrote:I've seen good evidence for this theory as one of my patients had been misdiagnosed with Parkinson's Disease and started on the drug Sinemet (levodopa/carbidopa which increase neural dopamine levels.) This patient became severely psychotic, ie, experiencing auditory/visual hallucinations, delusional with paranoid ideation. What brought him to my unit was a failed suicide attempt (attempted to cut his own throat with a steak knife). After stopping the Sinemet doses and starting an anti-psychotic drug regimen, the patient gradually improved to the point of regaining full cognitive functionality and discharging from my unit
Tim Hebert wrote:I'm going to try and secure a copy. Some years ago, I read Jaynes' theory and admittedly "scoffed" at it. But the more that I've read the literary works from antiquity and comparing the various cognitive theories, I've become more intrigued by Jaynes' views.
Tim Hebert wrote:Simply, "The Dopamine Surge Theory" states that the symptoms of Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders can be attributed to the abnormally high levels of dopamine flooding the neuronal synapses. This induces audio/ visual hallucinations and certain pathological paranoia states.
Tim Hebert wrote:I have a suspicion that momentary influx of dopamine may actually occur normally, inducing a brief psychotic event, then subsiding, for a select portion of the population. This could account for UFO sightings/abductions and other perceived paranormal events. I'll have to do a data search and see if others have looked into this area. (I'm not one to think that my ideas are original)
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